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Eagle's feathers are sacred, especially the Golden Eagle and Bald Eagle. Therefore, it is a privilege to wear the eagle's feathers. Also, these Native American tribes believe that the eagle's feathers should never touch the ground.
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The Eagle Staff is carried into the circle, followed by the American, Canadian, state and tribal flags. Title holders from tribal pageants and invited dignitaries are next. The men follow, traditional dancers first, grass dancers, fancy shawl dancers and jingle dress dancers.
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VINTAGE BEADED NATIVE AMERICAN MOCCASINS Great vintage pair of Native American beaded moccasins approximately /4 inches in length and /2 inches wide. Great patina, excellent beadwork. Usually ships in 3 to 4 business days.

The families would then leave the circle and wait until after the dance was complete, and all would feast together. There usually was not a dry eye in sight as the ceremony took place. This precious ceremony has been ongoing for many years now. Then, around the middle of the s, suddenly mothers started having problems being able to retain the Umbilical cord and the placenta.

We must go thru many legal papers to have this simple request honored. Most of the mothers were told that they had to pay a large sum of money and they could have the cord frozen so that when the child got up in their years, they could make a medicine from that DNA and perhaps cure many diseases for them. After that, the families would go around the complete circle of women dancers and each dancer would bless the baby and family.

The fathers and mothers would present the plant or bush and go to the area designated for planting and plant the placenta. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways, epidemic diseases brought from Europe, genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers and colonists, as well as between tribes, displacement from their lands, internal warfare, enslavement and a high rate of intermarriage.

With the rapid declines of some populations and continuing rivalries among their nations, Native Americans sometimes re-organized to form new cultural groups, such as the Seminoles of Florida in the eighteenth century and the Mission Indians of Alta California.

Estimating the number of Native Americans living in what is today the United States of America before the arrival of the European explorers and settlers has been the subject of much debate.

While it is difficult to determine exactly how many Natives lived in North America before Columbus, estimates range from a low of 2. A low estimate of around 1 million was first posited by the anthropologist James Mooney in the s, by calculating population density of each culture area based on its carrying capacity.

In , the American anthropologist Henry Dobyns published studies estimating the original population to have been 10 to 12 million. By , he increased his estimates to 18 million. He took into account the mortality rates caused by infectious diseases of European explorers and settlers, against which Native Americans had no immunity. Dobyns combined the known mortality rates of these diseases among native people with reliable population records of the 19th century, to calculate the probable size of the original populations.

By , the Native population of the present-day United States had declined to approximately ,, and only , Native Americans remained in the s. Chicken pox and measles, although by this time endemic and rarely fatal among Europeans long after being introduced from Asia , often proved deadly to Native Americans. Smallpox proved particularly fatal to Native American populations. Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed entire village populations.

One element of the Columbian exchange suggests explorers from the Christopher Columbus expedition contracted syphilis from indigenous peoples and carried it back to Europe, where it spread widely. Other researchers believe that the disease existed in Europe and Asia before Columbus and his men returned from exposure to indigenous peoples of the Americas, but that they brought back a more virulent form.

Historians believe many Mohawk in present-day New York became infected after contact with children of Dutch traders in Albany in The disease swept through Mohawk villages, reaching the Onondaga at Lake Ontario by , and the lands of the western Iroquois by , as it was carried by Mohawk and other Native Americans who traveled the trading routes. The high rate of fatalities caused breakdowns in Native American societies and disrupted generational exchanges of culture.

Those involved in the fur trade in the northern areas tended to ally with French forces against British colonial militias. Native Americans fought on both sides of the conflict. The greater number of tribes fought with the French in the hopes of checking British expansion.

The British had made fewer allies, but it was joined by some tribes that wanted to prove assimilation and loyalty in support of treaties to preserve their territories. They were often disappointed when such treaties were later overturned. The tribes had their own purposes, using their alliances with the European powers to battle traditional Native enemies. For the next 80 to years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region.

Puget Sound area populations, once estimated as high as 37, people, were reduced to only 9, survivors by the time settlers arrived en masse in the midth century. Smallpox epidemics in — and — brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. By , the federal government established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans The Indian Vaccination Act of It was the first federal program created to address a health problem of Native Americans.

Medicine wheels are stone structures built by the natives of North America for various spiritual and ritual purposes. Medicine wheels were built by laying out stones in a circular pattern that often resembled a wagon wheel lying on its side. The wheels could be large, reaching diameters of 75 feet.

Although archeologists are not definite on the int Medicine wheels are still used today in the Native American spirituality, however most of the meaning behind them is not shared amongst non-Native peoples. Dream catchers are also mandalas.

A confederacy, formerly the most important of the Algonquian stock, occupying the entire basin of Delaware river in east Pennsylvania and south New York, together with most of New Jersey and Delaware. They called themselves Lenape or Leni-lenape, equivalent to 'real men,' or 'native, genuine men', the English knew them as Delaware, from t To the more remote Algonquian tribes they, together with all their cognate tribes along the coast far up into New England, were known as Wapanaehki, 'easterners,' or 'eastern land people,' a term which appears also as a specific tribal designation in the form of Abnaki.

By virtue of admitted priority of political rank and of occupying the central home territory, from which most of the cognate tribes had diverged, they were accorded by all the Algonquian tribes the respectful title of "grandfather," a recognition accorded by courtesy also by the Huron. The Nanticoke, Conoy, Shawnee, and Mahican claimed close connection with the Delaware and preserved the tradition of a common origin.

Each of these had its own territory and dialect, with more or less separate identity, the Munsee particularly being so far differentiated as frequently to be considered an independent people. About the year the Delaware received permission from the Miami and Piankishaw to occupy the country between the Ohio and White river south, in Indiana, where at one time they had 6 villages.

In , by permission of the Spanish government, a part of them removed to Missouri, and afterward to Arkansas, together with a band of Shawnee.

By the two bands had found their way to Texas, where the Delaware numbered at that time probably at least By the year most of the tribe had been gathered on a reservation in Kansas, from which they removed, in , to Indian Territory and incorporated with the Cherokee Nation. Another band is affiliated with the Caddo and Wichita in west Oklahoma, besides which there are a few scattered remnants in the United States, with several hundred in Canada, under the various names of Delaware, Munsee, and Moravians.

Either way is fine--but avoid spelling the word "Algonquian" or "Algonkian," because that refers to a whole group of Native American languages including Cree, Blackfoot, and Delaware The Algonquins are only one of the many Algonquian-speaking tribes, and they have a unique identity and independent political status from the others. The French were probably trying to pronounce elehgumoqik , the Maliseet word for "our allies," or Algoomaking , a Mi'kmaq place name.

The Algonquins call themselves Anishnabe , which means "original person. However, Algonquins use Anishnabek to refer to other Indians also. So when they are specifically referring to their tribe, they usually use "Algonquins" or "Algonkins" to distinguish themselves. The Algonquins are original natives of southern Quebec and eastern Ontario, in Canada.

Today they live in nine communities in Quebec and one in Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes lived in New York, but never the Algonquin tribe.

This is a mistake that happened because of the similar spellings of these words. Each Algonquin community lives on its own reserve , or reservation. Reserves are land that belongs to the tribe and is legally under their control.

Each Algonquin tribe--known as a band or First Nation in Canada, is politically independent and has its own leadership. Algonquin First Nations have their own government, laws, police, and services, just like small countries. However, the Algonquins are also Canadian citizens and must obey Canadian law.

The leader of each Algonquin band is called ogima or ogema , which is translated as "chief" in English. The ogima used to be chosen by tribal councilmembers, often from the last chief's sons, nephews, or sons-in-law.

Today ogimas are elected by the Algonquins, just like governors or mayors. About half the Algonquin population also speak their native Algonquin language. Algonquin is a musical language that has complicated verbs with many parts. If you'd like to learn a few easy Algonquin words, "kwey" rhymes with "day" is a friendly greeting and "meegwetch" means "thank you. They are divided between Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the third-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by Cree and Inuit.

In the United States, they had the fourth-larg Because many Ojibwe were historically formerly located mainly around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie, they referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux.

Ojibwe who were originally located about the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas.

The Ojibwe peoples are a major component group of the Anishinaabe-speaking peoples, a branch of the Algonquian language family which includes the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi. The Ojibwe peoples number over 56, in the U. Another 77, of main-line Ojibwe; 76, Saulteaux and 8, Mississaugas, in bands, live in Canada, stretching from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. They are historically known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, use of cowrie shells for trading, cultivation of wild rice, and use of copper arrow points.

In they adopted guns from the British to use to defeat and push the Dakota nation of the Sioux to the south. The Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west. The Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, history, songs, maps, memories, stories, geometry, and mathematics.

There are two prevailing views about Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas, the traditional territory of the later Haudenosaunee and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.

Researchers in the 19th century The other theory, which is disputed by academic specialists, is that they had been there for thousands of years.

Some traditionalists, historians and archaeologists believe that Cherokees did not come to Appalachia until the 13th century or later. They may have migrated from the north and moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by Muscogee ancestors. During early research, archeologists had mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. Late 20th-century studies have shown conclusively instead that the weight of archeological evidence at the sites shows they are unquestionably related to Muskogean peoples rather than to the Cherokee.

Precontact Cherokee are considered to be part of the later Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa to Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.

During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Indians in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, lambsquarters, pigweed, sunflowers and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, and followed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian Culture-period to CE , local women developed a new variety of maize corn called eastern flint.

It closely resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms with several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies, especially the Green Corn Ceremony. Traditional, linguistic, and archeological evidence shows that the Cherokee originated in the north, but they were found in possession of the south Allegheny region when first encountered by De Soto in Their relations with the Carolina colonies began years later.

In the Jesuit? Priber started the first mission among them, and atte In , under the leadership of A'ganstâ'ta Oconostota , they began war with the English of Carolina. In the Revolution they took sides against the Americans, and continued the struggle almost without interval until During this period parties of the Cherokee pushed down Tennessee River and formed new settlements at Chickamauga and other points about the Tennessee-Alabama line. Shortly after , missionary and educational work was established among theme, and in they adopted a regular form of government modeled on that of the United States.

In the meantime large numbers of the more conservative Cherokee, wearied by the encroachments of the whites, had crossed the Mississippi and made new homes in the wilderness in what is now Arkansas. A year or two later Sequoya, a mixed-blood, invented the alphabet, which at once raised them to the rank of a literary people.

As more evidence is gathered it is apparent that the people known as Cherokee did not always occupy the eastern great mountains. They were from the north and moved into the area where natives already lived. It is interesting that little of this is in the history books and is not taught. The Cherokee were not the original inhabitants of the great Mountains. Nvwoti is a 4, year old medical and spiritual system developed by the Cherokee as a way to administer herbal medicine. Cherokee herbalists use Nvwoti to communicate with plants, which they call "Green People," by asking for guidance and nourishment from the "Great Life," or nature.

Cherokee believe that by finding the energetic balance that the Green People offer, common ailments, such as the pain of childbirth, can be lessened by creating harmony and energetic symmetry. They were rarely sick from child-birth [and] suffered no inconvenien Although each indigenous culture had its own unique beliefs and rituals about childbirth, scholars believe that many First Peoples shared certain practices involving the participation of close family members and select others within the community.

During their pregnancies, women restricted their activities and took special care with their diet and behavior to protect the baby. The Cherokees, for example, believed that certain foods affected the fetus. Pregnant women avoided foods that they believed would harm the baby or cause unwanted physical characteristics. For example, they believed that eating raccoon or pheasant would make the baby sickly, or could cause death; consuming speckled trout could cause birthmarks; and eating black walnuts could give the baby a big nose.

They thought that wearing neckerchiefs while pregnant caused umbilical strangulation, and lingering in doorways slowed delivery. Expectant mothers and fathers participated in rituals to guarantee a safe delivery, such as daily washing of hands and feet and employing medicine men to perform rites that would make deliveries easier. As the birth grew closer, women and their families observed other rituals to ensure an easy and healthy birth.

A female relative of the mother would say: You little man, get up now at once. There comes an old woman. The horrible [old thing] is coming, only a little way off. Get your bed and let us run away. Van der Donck described a Mahican concoction made of root bark that the mother drank shortly before labor began. Many indigenous peoples used similar remedies. Cherokee women drank an infusion of wild cherry bark to speed delivery.

Despite numerous descriptions of solitary births, other accounts describe births attended by a midwife and other close family members. Men were rarely allowed in the birth room, and they were never allowed to see the birth. A woman in labor stood, knelt, or sat, but she never gave birth lying down. Usually no one bothered to catch the baby, who fell onto leaves placed beneath the mother.

Van der Donck and Mooney described post-delivery rituals in which the mothers ceremonially plunged the infant into the river, an act they repeated daily for two years. Barring any serious complications — which, of course, did happen occasionally — Native American women returned to their regular duties in a very short period of time.

Native Americans are made up of numerous tribes. These tribes actually act as undersized nations composing the grand nation of Native America. It may be hard for other people to distinguish one Native American tribe from another because of the many similarities, but there are differences, still.

These differences would turn out to be evident in how Cherokee tattoos are well-liked; and this style of tattoo comes from the Cherokee tribe or nation. Tattoos have been used by all Native American tribes to beautify their bodies, for hundreds, if not thousands of years. This was proven by antique portions of pottery painted with tattooed figures.

Men were not the only individuals who had tattoos. As a matter of fact, Native American women also had painted skin. Early European residents have noted this fact.

Nevertheless, if you crave for Cherokee tattoos it is imperative to note that the women never had tattoo designs of animals. This is mainly because of the belief that women have a huge foundation of preeminence that could negatively affect hunting.

The proof of this feminine force was proven by the ability to become pregnant and bear children. Valuing such a culture is natural for those who fancy tribal tattoos and designs.

When the Cherokee or other Native American tribes tattooed their skin, it was done by a professional artist who made use of fish bone needles or turtle shell shards. My cousin is turning 16 and I asked his mom about these…she said he loves them and has them in tan and could use a new pair. I decided to order a pair for my son to try despite the wishy-washy reviews.

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